Some of the recipes I have tried and liked are: Latkes, Oznei Haman/Hamantaschen, Haroset, Sufganiot, Blintz, Cheesecake, Noodle kugel with pears, Cholent, Tzimmes, Yemenite soup, the list goes on and on. There are many traditional recipes, Israeli, Mediterranean and Middle-eastern. I highly recommend this book.
For Rosh-Hashana, here is their recipe for honey cake.
Orange Hazelnut Honey Cake
1 teaspoon instant coffee
1/3 cup hot water
1 ½ cups flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
½ teaspoon baking soda
½ teaspoon ground cinnamon
Small pinch of ground cloves
½ cup sugar
½ cup honey
1/3 cup vegetable oil
1 ½ teaspoons grated orange zest, orange part only
½ cup hazelnuts, coarsely chopped
Preheat oven to 325 degrees. Lightly grease an 8 x 4-inch loaf pan, line it with parchment or waxed paper and grease paper.
In a cup, dissolve instant coffee in hot water. Let cool. Sift flour with baking powder, baking soda, cinnamon, and cloves.
Beat eggs lightly in large bowl of mixer. Add sugar and honey and beat until mixture is very smooth and lightened in color. Gradually add oil and beat until blended. Add orange zest.
Stir in flour mixture alternately with coffee, each in two batches. Stir in hazelnuts.
Pour batter into prepared pan. Bake for 55 minutes, or until a cake tester inserted in cake comes out clean.
Cool in pan for about 15 minutes. Turn out onto rack and peel off paper.
When cake is completely cool, wrap it tightly in foil and keep it at room temperature.